Life Behind Bars

The New, Purpose-Built House Of Correction…
Bodmin Jail was built by prisoners of war and remains notorious for the many tales of woe and dramatic executions both inside and beyond its imposing granite walls.. Despite the dreadful conditions, the purpose-built house of correction, completed in the Cornish town of Bodmin in 1779, was a state of the art prison and was designed on principles propagated by the great prison reformer John Howard.. In keeping with his views, it housed 100 inmates in individual, light and airy cells.. Males and females were segregated, different areas were established for felons, misdemeanants and debtors, and the building boasted a chapel, an infirmary and even hot water.. In subsequent decades it required rebuilding and expansion to cope with peaks in demand, such as the increased level of committals after the end of the Napoleonic Wars.. Work began on a new 220-cell jail in 1856 after the original building, struggling to meet the demands for confinement set out by new prison legislation, was inspected and declared unfit for purpose.
When the Debtor’s Act of 1869 abolished imprisonment for debt, the buildings housing the Debtor’s Prison and the under-populated Women’s Prison were given to the Admiralty and in 1887 an HM Naval Prison was established.
Before the doors of Bodmin’s civil and naval prisons were closed for the last time and the jail’s buildings were sold off in 1929, one of Britain’s finest treasures was temporarily housed within its walls.. The Domesday Book was among more than 19,000 items relocated from the Public Record Office to Bodmin Jail for safekeeping during the First World War.
Some areas of the former prison would eventually enjoy new leases of life after the closure of the prison, including the former Administration block which witnessed happier times as a club and casino in later decades.. In 2004 the building was bought for development and is now managed as a tourist attraction.
( Extract from an article by Claire Saul, October 2015 )

Life Behind Bars Inside Bodmin Jail…
Early prisoners worked inside Bodmin Jail, men occupied with activities such as shoemaking or cutting and polishing stone and slate, while women would knit, weave and spin, all producing goods that would be sold for profit.. The early 19th century philosophy that unproductive labour would be more of a deterrent against reoffending, saw the arrival of two treadwheel and other hard-labour machines at Bodmin.. In later decades picking oakum was also introduced, requiring prisoners to spend hours unraveling the strands of old pieces of rope down to their individual fibres, which would then be sold to ship builders for use in the caulking of wooden craft.. A return to earlier prison labour philosophy came in 1898 when the Prisons Act decreed that work should have a constructive purpose.
Daily rations of bread were handed out to Bodmin’s early inmates, with those attending divine service on a Saturday being allocated an additional half pound of meat made into broth for their Sunday dinner.. The Gaol Act of 1823 aimed to improve prison diets with the addition of items such as cheese and suet although this initiative was ignored for most of the next decade, as it was in many prisons.
From the mid 1870s, food was allocated according to the length of sentence.. Those incarcerated for less than two weeks had a daily ration of bread and gruel while men and women committed to hard labour for over six months were given additional portions of meat, soup and potatoes.. More variety would not be added to the diet for almost another 40 years.
( Claire Saul, October 2015 )

Was Holodomor Genocide ?

Armenia, 1915
 The Young Turks, part of the Dönmeh, a group of crypto-Jews that ‘converted’ to Islam, were responsible for the genocide of 1.5 million Christians.. The majority of those killed were Armenian, but the death toll also included Assyrians and Greeks.. These Christians were starved to death, grotesquely tortured and murdered.. Crucifixion was just one method of torture and death.

Russia, 1921-22 …
The first of three Holodomors perpetrated by the Bolsheviks, the vast majority of whom were Jewish, including Trotsky and Lenin..  Angered by the resistance to collectivisation, Lenin ordered grain seizures to be increased.. While stealing the only food people had, the Jewish Cheka, an acronym for ‘Special Commission for Fighting Counter-Revolution’, as well as a Yiddish expression for ani­mal slaughter, also committed unspeakable atrocities.. Children were shot if they were found eating, some people were crucified or scalped, and others had their stomach cut open and part of their intestine pulled out and nailed to a tree or telegraph pole, around which the victim was forced to run until the entire intestine had come out.. The death toll for this first Holodomor, death by starvation, was up to five million ethnic Europeans, the majority of whom were Christians.. When asked to help with the famine, Trotsky responded, “You are starving ?.. This is not famine yet.. When your women start eating their children then you may come and say we are starving.”

Ukraine, 1932-33 …
The second, most widely known Holodomor resulted in death by starvation of 7.5-10 million Ukrainians.. Again, mainly Christians.. The Jews at the helm of implementing Stalin’s first Five-Year-Plan were Lazar Kaganovich, Genrikh Yagoda and Nikolai Yezhov.. This Holodomor was also accompanied by similarly horrific atrocities, tortures and murders.. And, as Trotsky predicted, parents did eat their children.. Despite the unspeakable horrors and high death toll in this relatively short period of time, Ukraine’s Chief Rabbi, Yakov Dov Bleich, was quoted in the Baltimore Jewish Times on November 14, 2007 as saying, “We can’t equate the Holocaust of the Jews in Germany with the Holodomor in Ukraine.. Ukrainian Jewish leaders do not support recognising the Holodomor as genocide.”

Ukraine, 1946-47 …
The third Holodomor resulted in, approximately, one million deaths by starvation.. Thus, 13.5-16 million ethnic Europeans, mainly Christians, died in these three genocides, combined.

Soviet Union, 1917-57 …
Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn stated that 66 million people, most of whom were Christian, were killed by the Bolsheviks and Stalin combined.. This figure includes the three Holodomors, above.. In ‘Two Hundred Years Together’, Solzhenitsyn’s last book, he writes, “Without Jews there would never have been Bolshevism.. For a Jew nothing is more insulting than the truth.. The bloodthirsty Jewish terrorists have murdered sixty-six million in Russia from 1918 to 1957.”

The following Trotsky quote from 1917 clearly shows that the driving motivation of the Jewish Bolsheviks had nothing to do with liberating the workers and peasants, but everything to do with imposing tyrannical rule upon the Russian people :
“We must turn Russia into a desert populated by white negroes upon whom we shall impose a tyranny such as the most terrible Eastern despots never dreamt of.. The only difference is that this will be a left-wing tyranny, not a right-wing tyranny.. It will be a red tyranny and not a white one.. We mean the word ‘red’ literally, because we shall shed such floods of blood as will make all the human losses suffered in the capitalist wars pale by comparison.. The biggest bankers across the ocean will work in the closest possible contact with us.. If we win the revolution, we shall establish the power of Zionism upon the wreckage of the revolution’s funeral, and we shall became a power before which the whole world will sink to its knees.. We shall show what real power is.. By means of terror and bloodbaths, we shall reduce the Russian intelligentsia to a state of complete stupefaction and idiocy and to an animal existence.. At the moment, our young men in their leather jackets, who are the sons of watchmakers from Odessa, Orsha, Gomel and Vinnitsa, know how to hate everything Russian.. What pleasure they take in physically destroying the Russian intelligentsia, officers, academics and writers.”

The above is from the ‘Memoirs’ of Aron Simanovich, quoted in ‘The Nature of Zionism’ by Vladimir Stepin, Moscow, 1993, and translated from Russian into English by Clive Lindhurst.

British-Jewish History…
The Jewish people have been an integral part of British history ever since the day William the Conqueror invaded England in 1066, his conquest directly financed by Jews who had been expelled from Spain.
The 2,600 Jews who followed in the wake of the invasion grew to 16,000 by the year 1290, at which point Edward I expelled them, primarily due to their usurious practices.. Two hundred and fifty-seven years later, in 1647, Oliver Cromwell accepted Jewish money to further his Roundhead fight against the Cavaliers.. In return, Cromwell agreed to allow the expelled Jews back into England.
In 1689, William of Orange ascended to the throne as King William III, his invasion fully financed by Jewish money.. He continued to take yet more Jewish money to finance his costly wars with France, resulting in the Jews being given a charter to establish the Bank of England in 1694.. This led to the creation of the national debt, with the resulting interest being paid through the raising of taxes.
The next major step in the illustrious British-Jewish history was when, through deception, following the Battle of Waterloo of 1815, the Rothschilds gained control of the British economy and, ultimately, the Bank of England.. Which, of course, led to their owning or controlling all of the world’s central banks.

The Beginning Of Education

When Children Never Went To School…
It is hard to imagine a Britain where children never went to school, but until the 1790s the opportunity of learning to read and write was rare for most of the country’s youth.. Learning was mainly the privilege of the aristocracy.. The army, the church, the law or taking over the family estate was the burden of the upper classes and they prepared their offspring accordingly.. Rich fathers hired tutors to ready their sons for running the country before packing them off to Oxford or Cambridge.. North of the border, the Scots were ahead of the times with five universities.. Wealthy wives oversaw the appointment of a governess capable of teaching their daughters how to look pretty, laugh in the right places and bully the servants.. Some elementary knowledge of reading and counting was an advantage but on no account must your daughters appear to be clever.
Wealthy men endowed colleges for the good of their souls, but benefactors apart, it was the Sunday school that introduced the mystery of reading to a wider audience.. Its purpose was to enable the flock simply to read the Bible.. Writing came a poor second and arithmetic was irrelevant.
In 1807, Mr Samuel Whitbread voiced the revolutionary idea that local parishes should be responsible for providing two years’ teaching for children between seven and 14 years of age.. Objections were vociferous.. It would be too expensive, children needed to work on the land and in factories, and anyway they would ‘get ideas above their station’.
Education, of course, was really meant for boys.. The Victorian writer and educator Elizabeth Missing Sewell, a supporter of girls schooling, still reflected the ethos of the time in that ‘boys are sent into the world to govern and direct, girls are to dwell in quiet homes to exercise a noiseless influence’.. Just to make her point clear, she added ‘a woman who is not feminine is a monster in creation’.
In the 19th century, British people were growing restless.. In farming communities new machinery threatened the already pathetic wages and saw agricultural workers turn to violence.. Families moved to the new industrial towns in search of work.. There, in the mills, appalling conditions finally alerted the humanitarians to the need for reform.. If people could read and write and add up, all kinds of new opportunities awaited them.. Many remained unconvinced.
In 1833, the Factory Act included the proposal that children between nine and 13 should have two hours education a day and those under seven should not be employed in the mills.. In that year Mr Roebuck expressed his hope in the Commons that with the ‘slow operation of time, patience and industry’, those in parliament would be won round to seeing that education was a good thing.
It took until 1870, when for the price of 2d a week, all children between five and 13 should go to school.. Poor children’s fees would be paid.. Even then the churches weren’t entirely happy that their sphere of influence was being taken over by the State.
Finally, in 1944, what was known as the Butler Education Act (after Richard ‘Rab’ Butler, the Education Secretary) came into force.. It swept away all previous legislation and guaranteed free non-denominational education for all five to 13-year-olds.. It was intended to promote the spiritual, mental and physical well-being.
( Extract from an article by Janet Toms, September 2015 )

Vivien Leigh…
When the three year-old Vivian Mary Hartley recited Little Bo Peep to the delight of her mother’s amateur theatre group, it marked the start of a lifelong performing career that would embrace two Academy Awards and a distinguished, 30-year stage career.. As Vivien Leigh she would become one of Britain’s most iconic actresses, the raven-haired beauty who beat hundreds of actresses, including Hollywood heavyweights such as Paulette Goddard and Katherine Hepburn, to the role of Scarlett O’Hara in the 1939 cinematic blockbuster Gone With the Wind.
( Extract from an article by Claire Saul, September 2015 )

The World’s First High Definition Television Service…
Today there are more than 200 digital channels to choose from.. So it’s hard to recall that there was once a time in Britain when you only had one TV channel to watch.. The grandly-titled BBC Television Service was the world’s first high definition television service.. It launched on the 2nd November 1936 from converted rooms in London’s Alexandra Palace.. From Ally Pally, a diet of quite slow programmes was broadcast to the metropolitan middle-class, and for a long time an exclusively London and south-east audience.. Because of the cost of new transmitters, not to mention television’s suspension during the Second World War, it wasn’t until 1952 that the BBC Television Service was available to around 81% of the population.
( Extract from an article by Andrew White, September 2015 )

Saving The Children

Operation Thursday…
The aim of Operation Thursday on 5 March, 1944 was to fly a force of 10,000 men, 1,000 mules, equipment and supplies into the heart of Burma.. All sorties were to be flown at night to avoid Japanese aircraft, and gliders would land troops to secure the site.. A second wave would land more troops and American engineers with their equipment to construct an airstrip so that C47 Dakotas could bring in the remaining forces.
Prior to the fly-in, the Japanese air force had been much weakened by raids on their airfields by 1st Air Commando USAAF and the RAF.. Some 78 Japanese aircrafts were destroyed and more damaged.. Brigadier Michael Calvert, commander of 77th Brigade led the first wave of 52 gliders.. Another 28 gliders were in the second wave.. Initial glider landings did not go well.. Aerial photographs failed to show ditches and trees on a landing area and these caused several of the gliders to crash on landing and 30 men were killed, and 28 wounded.
Planes en-route were ordered to return to prevent further casualties.. On the first night 35 gliders managed to land and by dawn 400 men were ready for action.. A runway was cleared and a total of 55 Dakotas flew in, followed by 579 Dakota sorties bringing in 77th Brigade and two battalions from 111th Brigade.
A second airstrip was constructed and by 8 March a force of 1,200 men, 200 mules and their equipment had been flown in.. This was the largest Allied airborne operation ever conducted until the forces under Eisenhower landed in France.
( Best of British magazine, August 2015 )

Saving The Children…
On 2 December 1938, as the clouds of war gathered over Europe, a ship docked at Harwich bringing 200 Jewish children – immigrants seeking sanctuary, facing an uncertain future.. They would be the first of thousands, brought here by the Kindertransport to save their lives.. These children had been saved by British men and women who cared – men like the late Sir Nicholas Winton and his friends.. They came to Britain on the trains, planes and ships organised by British organisations dedicated to rescuing Jewish children from the Nazis.. They arrived without their parents, coming to a country that would be at war within the year, but at least they would not know the horrors of Auschwitz and the death camps that took their families.
The trigger that sparked the Kindertransport was the night of 9/10 November 1938, when Jewish businesses in Germany were attacked by Nazi mobs – their windows smashed and their businesses vandalised.. It became known as Kristallnacht (the Night of the Broken Glass) and began to confirm to a horrified world just what Hitler’s regime was capable of.. It spurred on organisations like the British Committee for the Jews of Germany and the British based Movement for the Care of Children from Germany.
( Extract from an article by Brian Lynch, August 2015 )

German Missiles Fired At London…
Towards the end of the Second World War, thousands of V1 and V2 missiles were fired at London and South East England.. The V1 pilotless planes announced their arrival with an ominous drone, followed by silence as their motors stopped and they and their payload of explosives glided downwards along a chillingly unpredictable path.
The V2 rockets delivered instant destruction with a ‘double crack’ – the breaking of the sound barrier, then the explosion.
The most destructive V2 impact was on Woolworth’s in New Cross, South East London.. The store was filled with housewives attracted by rumours of saucepans for sale.. 168 were killed.. The public outcry led the RAF to bomb suspected launch sites in The Hague, but the German crews were long gone.. Instead, 500 Dutch civilians were incinerated, an even greater horror than the New Cross explosion.
Perhaps the most remarkable fact is that more people died making the V-weapons than in the explosions they caused.. Thousands of slave labourers perished underground, working in horrific conditions.. Those who survived to the end were shot, hanged, burned alive or sent to a concentration camp by the Nazis.
In contrast, the German’s top rocket scientist, Werner von Braun, was able to arrange for himself and his team to be captured by friendly Americans.
He swiftly transferred his loyalty from the Third Reich to the US space programme, and in due course was celebrated in a movie called ‘I Aim At The Stars’.
Cynics called it ‘I Aim At The Stars, But Sometimes I Hit London’.
( Originally posted on May 2, 2012 )

A Night Devoid Of Stars

You don’t achieve peace by planning for war.
I believe in a nuclear-free Britain and a nuclear-free future.
(Jeremy Corbyn)

Despite his promise of withdrawing all British troops from Afghanistan, soon-to-resign, warmongering PM David Cameron has done another U-turn and is sending more troops there.. 456 UK troops have died in Afghanistan since 2001.

When you destroy Unions there will be no standard at all, nobody left to negotiate decent jobs for the middle class.
(Bernie Sanders)

Islam was never a religion of peace.
Islam is the religion of fighting.
No one should believe that the war that we are waging is the war of the Islamic State, it is the war of all Muslims, but the Islamic State is spearheading it.
It is the war of Muslims against infidels.
(Abu Bakr Al-Baghdadi, 14.05.2015)

Violence never brings permanent peace.
It solves no social problem.. It merely creates new and more complicated ones.
Violence is impractical because it is a descending spiral ending in destruction for all.
It is immoral because it seeks to humiliate the opponent rather than win his understanding.. It seeks to annihilate rather than convert.
Violence is immoral because it thrives on hatred rather than love.
It destroys community and makes brotherhood impossible.
It leaves society in monologue rather than dialogue.
Violence ends up defeating itself.
It creates bitterness in the survivors and brutality in the destroyers.
(Martin Luther King Jr.)

You shop around for the best deal – agree to a 12-month contract – and then half-way through the ‘contract’ the provider hikes up the price.. This seems to be a common practise by the greedy TV/telephone/broadband companies.

You Want An Itemised Bill ? That Will Be £8.00 Please…
Imagine shopping at Marks & Spencer, Sainsbury’s, Asda or Tesco..
And when you pay for your shopping being told it will cost you an extra £8.00 if you want an itemised receipt showing the purchases you have made.. And then being told it will cost you another £6.00 for ‘processing’ your payment.
This is what greedy British Telecom and other money-grabbing providers charge their customers, many of which include the elderly, the poor, and the disabled.
British Telecom, built and paid for by the people and once part of the Post Office, and then sold by the Conservative Government to their wealthy, fat-cat mates.

Why are foreigners living in Britain dismissively called immigrants while Britons living in foreigners’ lands are respectfully called ex-pats ?
(Brian Reade, 28.05.2016)

Around 1,500 newspapers, 1,100 magazines, 9,000 radio stations, 1,500 TV stations..
Owned by just SIX corporations in the USA.

The people who stay true to those who put them in power – these are the people I admire – not the people who climb into power on the backs of others, kick away the ladder and are presented as ‘men of principle’ and ‘moderates’.
(Tony Benn, 1925-2014)

Remember, it didn’t start with gas chambers.
It started with politicians dividing the people with ‘US v THEM’.
It started with intolerance and hate speech and when people stopped caring, became desensitised and turned a blind eye.

I mourn the loss of thousands of precious lives, but I will not rejoice in the death of one, not even an enemy.. Returning hate for hate multiplies hate, adding deeper darkness to a night already devoid of stars.
(Martin Luther King Jr.)

Can we make it law every time a politician says “going forward”, a voter has the right to punch them in the mouth ?
(Brian Reade, 02.07.2016)

Greedy Ticket Touts…
Going to a live music event is one of the great pleasures in life.
It was never cheap but ordinary fans could manage to see their great heroes as a treat.
Not any more.. At least not for most of them.
Ticket prices have gone through the roof, costing hundreds if not thousands of pounds.
It isn’t the artists who are getting that money though.
It is today’s breed of hyper-greedy touts.
They grab huge numbers of tickets off the internet within seconds of them going on sale, then re-sell them at a massive mark-up.. It has become such a big and lucrative business that it makes the ruthless people who run it £1billion a year.
The Government knows what is going on but is doing nothing effective to stop it.
(Sunday Mirror, 29.05.2016)

Lord Alan Sugar, who was ennobled by Labour, has defected to the Tories to become David Cameron’s Enterprise Tsar, despite calling him and his chancellor economic incompetents.
(Brian Reade, 28.05.2016)

Motorists have been hit with the biggest insurance price hike in five years, says Confused.com.. The comparison site found premiums rose by 19% in 12 months.. Drivers aged 61 faced the steepest rise of 24%.

Boris Johnson waited years for the ball to come loose from the Tory scrum then was too cowardly to pick it up.. The burly loudmouth bottled the biggest game of his life after a tackle by Gove the geek.. In-Justice Secretary traitorous Michael Gove played dirty and kicked his chum hard in the ballots in the hope of winning this leadership match for himself.. But the truth is when push came to shove, the blond ambition chickened out, fearing defeat.. Winning in Europe then losing an election isn’t how he intended to emulate his hero Winston Churchill.. Let us bid good riddance after Johnson’s despicable lies and deceit.. Don’t feel a scintilla of sympathy for a bumbler who isn’t half as clever as he thinks.
(Kevin Maguire, 01.07.2016)

Isn’t it funny how right-wing papers have stopped printing photos of hordes of migrants trying to get into Britain now we’ve voted to leave Europe ?
(Brian Reade, 09.07.2016)